Geminis’ Dart Frog

Central America


Andinobates geminisae


  • It has been impacted by deforestation for agriculture by non-indigenous colonists and an influx of indigenous peoples from the Comarca Ngöbe Buglé.

Andinobates geminisae is characterized by its tiny size with a snout-vent length of 11.63 - 13.63 mm. It has a skinny body with smooth skin on its backside while its back areolates are characterized by a coarse, grainy texture. The eye length of A. gemininisae is longer than the length of its slender snout. It has a distinguishable, average-sized tympanum (relative to the eye length) that is slightly visible through the skin. The head length and head width are of equal distance, but head length is only 31% of the snout-vent length. Rounded all around, the snout has nostrils positioned outward along the tip. These nares are visible from an anterior view as well as from underneath the species though they are not visible from a bird’s eye view. The distance between these nares is around 44% of the head width. Andinobates geminisae has a flat loreal region that then becomes marginally curved between the head crown and snout. A pair of discernable vocal slits is located between its jaw articulation and extendable tongue. The hands are moderate in size with the finger lengths varying as such in length: 1 < 2 < 4 < 3, where fingers 2 and 4 are very close in length when pressed or adjacent to one another. The disk of finger 3 is 1.26 times wider than the ends of the fingers 2 and 4. Andinobates geminisae has palmar, thenar, and subarticular tubercles but lacks supernumerary tubercles, nuptial pads, and fringes along the phalanx. The round, elevated palmar tubercle is faintly bigger than the low, elongated thenar tubercles. The subarticular tubercles are orbed and bowed. The hind legs from heel to knee are 43% of the snout-vent length. The lengths of their pressed toes are: 1 < 2 < 3 < 5 < 4. Andinobates geminisae has a lengthened inner metatarsal tubercle and smaller outer metatarsal tubercles that are rounded. Although this species lacks tarsal ridges, their toes have disks that are sparsely expanded. In entirety, the species has hands and legs that do not have any webbing.

Andinobates geminisae is different from other species of the genus because of its uniform chrome orange color, smooth back, and idiosyncratic male call. However, it is similar to Andinobates opissthomelas in coloration, but can be differentiated by A. geminisae not having a granular skin texture. Usually mistaken for the species Andinobates minutus because of its close geographical distribution and similar mitochrondrial genes, this species has many conspicuous differences. There is a stark contrast in coloration and the advertisement calls of the similar species that have a higher dominant frequency with fewer pulses per note. Other closely related species, Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei, are larger than this species in snout-vent length and population size. There is also a great difference in color and behavior between O. pumilio, O. vicentei, and A. geminisae. The dorsal color of O. vicentei is usually red but it is also seen in green, blue, or yellow with darker blotches. In behavior, O. vicentei is a tree-dwelling species unlike A. geminisae, which is seen primarily on the ground. The call duration for the O. pumilio and O. vicentei species are 0.04 – 0.07 seconds and 0.14 – 0.20 seconds respectively whereas the call of A. geminisae is longer than 1.60 seconds on average.