- Habitat loss and degradation
- Periodic drought
- High traffic roads
- Continuous grazing
- Invasion of red fire ants
The Houston Toad is an endemic amphibian species to the south-eastern part of Texas in the USA. It feeds mainly on insects and invertebrates. The main breeding grounds for this nocturnal toad are isolated non-flowing ponds and pools while adults can be found in coastal prairies, sandy soils, and open wooded areas with an intermixture of tall grass.
Conversion of the wooded and wetland areas for urbanization, man-made infrastructure, and agriculture has greatly reduced the habitat range of the Houston Toad population.
The frog species is vulnerable to vehicle strikes or being trampled upon by grazing animals while its breeding sites are prone to predation from fish species, snakes, and other animals.
This landscape alteration makes it difficult for males to attract females to breed, for frogs to roam without difficulty or threat of predators, and for creating burrows for shelter.
As more red fire ants roam the area, it means less chances of survival for day-old toads during its travel from the breeding site to the land habitat. Widespread use of herbicides and pesticides in surrounding agricultural lands also pollutes the water habitat and lowers the abundance and quality of its food supply.