North America


Loxioides bailleui


  • Habitat loss
  • Limited food source
  • Mortality through predation and diseases

The Palila is a unique Hawaiian honeycreeper that has a close ecological relationship with the Mamane tree. Both species cannot be found elsewhere and the bird’s survival and reproductive success is highly dependent on the life of the tree. This golden-yellow head-and-breast bird is the remaining species among the 16 finch-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers.

Because the Palila bird species only lives and eats in mamane trees, destruction of the forests for man-made infrastructure and developmental activities played a major role for the fast decline of its population.

Without the mamane tree, there is no food source for this endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper species. And the remaining habitat options are at risk of being ransacked by predators such as sheep, cats, and mongooses that eat both eggs and nestlings. The Palila bird is also susceptible to mosquito-borne diseases.